The study set out to establish the challenges to environmental conservation in Kenya. Since environment is a wide topic, this study chose the Mau Forest Complex as the study area. And in order to do a comprehensive analysis, this study modified and adopted Smith’s version on theory of ecologism. The study utilized both primary and secondary sources of data. The secondary data was obtained from books, journals, magazines, newspapers, websites and government documents. The primary data, on the other hand, was generated through interviews and focused group discussions (FGDs). These was conducted on the residents of Chemare and Chematich sub-locations both in Kiptororo location Kuresoi South Sub-county in Nakuru County, the KFS staff, D.O, Chief and Assistant Chiefs, officials of CFAs and NGO, one timber merchant/logger, one charcoal maker merchant and the opinion leaders.
The respondents were identified through probability and non-probability sampling methods while the data obtained was analyzed and presented in descriptive method. The study set two hypotheses; one that there is a relationship between the existing policies and the conservation of the Mau Forest Complex and two that there is a relationship between the implementation of existing policies and conservation of the Mau Forest Complex. The study found out that there exist policies on environmental conservation. Consequently, from the findings, this study concluded that the policies on environmental conservation in Kenya are adequate and clearly spelt out in the conservation of the Mau Forest Complex. However with the presence of good policies notwithstanding the implementation in the conservation of the Mau Forest Complex is still wanting as it faces a myriad of challenges. The study further concluded that there is a thin line between politics and Mau Forest Complex conservation in Kenya